Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB)
Descent and Recovery
Electrical Power Distribution
Hydraulic Power Distribution (HPU)
Range Safety System (RSS)
Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGA)
Thrust Vector Control
The two SRBs provide the main thrust to lift the space shuttle off the pad and up to an altitude of about 150,000 feet, or 24 nautical miles (28 statute miles). In addition, the two SRBs carry the entire weight of the external tank and orbiter and transmit the weight load through their structure to the mobile launcher platform. Each booster has a thrust (sea level) of approximately 3,300,000 pounds at launch. They are ignited after the three space shuttle main engines' thrust level is verified. The two SRBs provide 71.4 percent of the thrust at lift- off and during first-stage ascent. Seventy- five seconds after SRB separation, SRB apogee occurs at an altitude of approximately 220,000 feet, or 35 nautical miles (41 statute miles). SRB impact occurs in the ocean approximately 122 nautical miles (141 statute miles) downrange.
The SRBs are the largest solid-propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. Each is 149.16 feet long and 12.17 feet in diameter.
Each SRB weighs approximately 1,300,000 pounds at launch. The propellant for each solid rocket motor weighs approximately 1,100,000 pounds. The inert weight of each SRB is approximately 192,000 pounds.
Primary elements of each booster are the motor (including case, propellant, igniter and nozzle), structure, separation systems, operational flight instrumentation, recovery avionics, pyrotechnics, deceleration system, thrust vector control system and range safety destruct system.
Each booster is attached to the external tank at the SRB's aft frame by two lateral sway braces and a diagonal attachment. The forward end of each SRB is attached to the external tank at the forward end of the SRB's forward skirt. On the launch pad, each booster also is attached to the mobile launcher platform at the aft skirt by four bolts and nuts that are severed by small explosives at lift-off.
During the downtime following the Challenger accident, detailed structural analyses were performed on critical structural elements of the SRB. Analyses were primarily focused in areas where anomalies had been noted during postflight inspection of recovered hardware.
One of the areas was the attach ring where the SRBs are connected to the external tank. Areas of distress were noted in some of the fasteners where the ring attaches to the SRB motor case. This situation was attributed to the high loads encountered during water impact. To correct the situation and ensure higher strength margins during ascent, the attach ring was redesigned to encircle the motor case completely (360 degrees). Previously, the attach ring formed a C and encircled the motor case 270 degrees.
Additionally, special structural tests were performed on the aft skirt. During this test program, an anomaly occurred in a critical weld between the hold-down post and skin of the skirt. A redesign was implemented to add reinforcement brackets and fittings in the aft ring of the skirt.
These two modifications added approximately 450 pounds to the weight of each SRB.
The propellant mixture in each SRB motor consists of an ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer, 69.6 percent by weight), aluminum (fuel, 16 percent), iron oxide (a catalyst, 0.4 percent), a polymer (a binder that holds the mixture together, 12.04 percent), and an epoxy curing agent (1.96 percent). The propellant is an 11-point star- shaped perforation in the forward motor segment and a double- truncated- cone perforation in each of the aft segments and aft closure. This configuration provides high thrust at ignition and then reduces the thrust by approximately a third 50 seconds after lift-off to prevent overstressing the vehicle during maximum dynamic pressure.
The SRBs are used as matched pairs and each is made up of four solid rocket motor segments. The pairs are matched by loading each of the four motor segments in pairs from the same batches of propellant ingredients to minimize any thrust imbalance. The segmented-casing design assures maximum flexibility in fabrication and ease of transportation and handling. Each segment is shipped to the launch site on a heavy- duty rail car with a specially built cover.
The nozzle expansion ratio of each booster beginning with the STS-8 mission is 7-to-79. The nozzle is gimbaled for thrust vector (direction) control. Each SRB has its own redundant auxiliary power units and hydraulic pumps. The all-axis gimbaling capability is 8 degrees. Each nozzle has a carbon cloth liner that erodes and chars during firing. The nozzle is a convergent- divergent, movable design in which an aft pivot- point flexible bearing is the gimbal mechanism.
The cone-shaped aft skirt reacts the aft loads between the SRB and the mobile launcher platform. The four aft separation motors are mounted on the skirt. The aft section contains avionics, a thrust vector control system that consists of two auxiliary power units and hydraulic pumps, hydraulic systems and a nozzle extension jettison system.
The forward section of each booster contains avionics, a sequencer, forward separation motors, a nose cone separation system, drogue and main parachutes, a recovery beacon, a recovery light, a parachute camera on selected flights and a range safety system.
Each SRB has two integrated electronic assemblies, one forward and one aft. After burnout, the forward assembly initiates the release of the nose cap and frustum and turns on the recovery aids. The aft assembly, mounted in the external tank/SRB attach ring, connects with the forward assembly and the orbiter avionics systems for SRB ignition commands and nozzle thrust vector control. Each integrated electronic assembly has a multiplexer/ demultiplexer, which sends or receives more than one message, signal or unit of information on a single communication channel.
Eight booster separation motors (four in the nose frustum and four in the aft skirt) of each SRB thrust for 1.02 seconds at SRB separation from the external tank. Each solid rocket separation motor is 31.1 inches long and 12.8 inches in diameter.
Location aids are provided for each SRB, frustum/ drogue chutes and main parachutes. These include a transmitter, antenna, strobe/ converter, battery and salt water switch electronics. The location aids are designed for a minimum operating life of 72 hours and when refurbished are considered usable up to 20 times. The flashing light is an exception. It has an operating life of 280 hours. The battery is used only once.
The SRB nose caps and nozzle extensions are not recovered.
The recovery crew retrieves the SRBs, frustum/ drogue chutes, and main parachutes. The nozzles are plugged, the solid rocket motors are dewatered, and the SRBs are towed back to the launch site. Each booster is removed from the water, and its components are disassembled and washed with fresh and deionized water to limit salt water corrosion. The motor segments, igniter and nozzle are shipped back to Thiokol for refurbishment.
Each SRB incorporates a range safety system that includes a battery power source, receiver/decoder, antennas and ordnance.
Each solid rocket booster has four hold- down posts that fit into corresponding support posts on the mobile launcher platform. Hold- down bolts hold the SRB and launcher platform posts together. Each bolt has a nut at each end, but only the top nut is frangible. The top nut contains two NASA standard detonators, which are ignited at solid rocket motor ignition commands.
When the two NSDs are ignited at each hold-down, the hold-down bolt travels downward because of the release of tension in the bolt (pretensioned before launch), NSD gas pressure and gravity. The bolt is stopped by the stud deceleration stand, which contains sand. The SRB bolt is 28 inches long and is 3.5 inches in diameter. The frangible nut is captured in a blast container.
The solid rocket motor ignition commands are issued by the orbiter's computers through the master events controllers to the hold- down pyrotechnic initiator controllers on the mobile launcher platform. They provide the ignition to the hold- down NSDs. The launch processing system monitors the SRB hold- down PICs for low voltage during the last 16 seconds before launch. PIC low voltage will initiate a launch hold.
SRB ignition can occur only when a manual lock pin from each SRB safe and arm device has been removed. The ground crew removes the pin during prelaunch activities. At T minus five minutes, the SRB safe and arm device is rotated to the arm position. The solid rocket motor ignition commands are issued when the three SSMEs are at or above 90-percent rated thrust, no SSME fail and/or SRB ignition PIC low voltage is indicated and there are no holds from the LPS.
The solid rocket motor ignition commands are sent by the orbiter computers through the MECs to the safe and arm device NSDs in each SRB. A PIC single-channel capacitor discharge device controls the firing of each pyrotechnic device. Three signals must be present simultaneously for the PIC to generate the pyro firing output. These signals- arm, fire 1 and fire 2-originate in the orbiter general- purpose computers and are transmitted to the MECs. The MECs reformat them to 28-volt dc signals for the PICs. The arm signal charges the PIC capacitor to 40 volts dc (minimum of 20 volts dc).
The fire 2 commands cause the redundant NSDs to fire through a thin barrier seal down a flame tunnel. This ignites a pyro booster charge, which is retained in the safe and arm device behind a perforated plate. The booster charge ignites the propellant in the igniter initiator; and combustion products of this propellant ignite the solid rocket motor initiator, which fires down the length of the solid rocket motor igniting the solid rocket motor propellant.
The GPC launch sequence also controls certain critical main propulsion system valves and monitors the engine- ready indications from the SSMEs. The MPS start commands are issued by the onboard computers at T minus 6.6 seconds (staggered start- engine three, engine two, engine one- all approximately within 0.25 of a second), and the sequence monitors the thrust buildup of each engine. All three SSMEs must reach the required 90-percent thrust within three seconds; otherwise, an orderly shutdown is commanded and safing functions are initiated.
Normal thrust buildup to the required 90-percent thrust level will result in the SSMEs being commanded to the lift- off position at T minus three seconds as well as the fire 1 command being issued to arm the SRBs. At T minus three seconds, the vehicle base bending load modes are allowed to initialize (movement of approximately 25.5 inches measured at the tip of the external tank, with movement towards the external tank).
At T minus zero, the two SRBs are ignited, under command of the four onboard computers; separation of the four explosive bolts on each SRB is initiated (each bolt is 28 inches long and 3.5 inches in diameter); the two T-0 umbilicals (one on each side of the spacecraft) are retracted; the onboard master timing unit, event timer and mission event timers are started; the three SSMEs are at 100 percent; and the ground launch sequence is terminated.
The solid rocket motor thrust profile is tailored to reduce thrust during the maximum dynamic pressure region.
Electrical Power Distribution
Electrical power distribution in each SRB consists of orbiter- supplied main dc bus power to each SRB via SRB buses A, B and C. Orbiter main dc buses A, B and C supply main dc bus power to corre sponding SRB buses A, B and C. In addition, orbiter main dc bus C supplies backup power to SRB buses A and B, and orbiter bus B supplies backup power to SRB bus C. This electrical power distribution arrangement allows all SRB buses to remain powered in the event one orbiter main bus fails.
The nominal dc voltage is 28 volts dc, with an upper limit of 32 volts dc and a lower limit of 24 volts dc.
Hydraulic Power Distribution (HPU)
There are two self- contained, independent HPUs on each SRB. Each HPU consists of an auxiliary power unit, fuel supply module, hydraulic pump, hydraulic reservoir and hydraulic fluid manifold assembly. The APUs are fueled by hydrazine and generate mechanical shaft power to a hydraulic pump that produces hydraulic pressure for the SRB hydraulic system. The two separate HPUs and two hydraulic systems are located on the aft end of each SRB between the SRB nozzle and aft skirt. The HPU components are mounted on the aft skirt between the rock and tilt actuators. The two systems operate from T minus 28 seconds until SRB separation from the orbiter and external tank. The two independent hydraulic systems are connected to the rock and tilt servoactuators.
The APU controller electronics are located in the SRB aft integrated electronic assemblies on the aft external tank attach rings.
The APUs and their fuel systems are isolated from each other. Each fuel supply module (tank) contains 22 pounds of hydrazine. The fuel tank is pressurized with gaseous nitrogen at 400 psi, which provides the force to expel (positive expulsion) the fuel from the tank to the fuel distribution line, maintaining a positive fuel supply to the APU throughout its operation.
The fuel isolation valve is opened at APU startup to allow fuel to flow to the APU fuel pump and control valves and then to the gas generator. The gas generator's catalytic action decomposes the fuel and creates a hot gas. It feeds the hot gas exhaust product to the APU two- stage gas turbine. Fuel flows primarily through the startup bypass line until the APU speed is such that the fuel pump outlet pressure is greater than the bypass line's. Then all the fuel is supplied to the fuel pump.
The APU turbine assembly provides mechanical power to the APU gearbox. The gearbox drives the APU fuel pump, hydraulic pump and lube oil pump. The APU lube oil pump lubricates the gearbox. The turbine exhaust of each APU flows over the exterior of the gas generator, cooling it, and is then directed overboard through an exhaust duct.
When the APU speed reaches 100 percent, the APU primary control valve closes, and the APU speed is controlled by the APU controller electronics. If the primary control valve logic fails to the open state, the secondary control valve assumes control of the APU at 112-percent speed.
Each HPU on an SRB is connected to both servoactuators on that SRB. One HPU serves as the primary hydraulic source for the servoactuator, and the other HPU serves as the secondary hydraulics for the servoactuator. Each sevoactuator has a switching valve that allows the secondary hydraulics to power the actuator if the primary hydraulic pressure drops below 2,050 psi. A switch contact on the switching valve will close when the valve is in the secondary position. When the valve is closed, a signal is sent to the APU controller that inhibits the 100-percent APU speed control logic and enables the 112-percent APU speed control logic. The 100-percent APU speed enables one APU/HPU to supply sufficient operating hydraulic pressure to both servoactuators of that SRB.
The APU 100-percent speed corresponds to 72,000 rpm, 110-percent to 79,200 rpm, and 112-percent to 80,640 rpm.
The hydraulic pump speed is 3,600 rpm and supplies hydraulic pressure of 3,050, plus or minus 50, psi. A high- pressure relief valve provides overpressure protection to the hydraulic system and relieves at 3,750 psi.
The APUs/HPUs and hydraulic systems are reusable for 20 missions.
Thrust Vector Control
Each SRB has two hydraulic gimbal servoactuators: one for rock and one for tilt. The servoactuators provide the force and control to gimbal the nozzle for thrust vector control.
The space shuttle ascent thrust vector control portion of the flight control system directs the thrust of the three shuttle main engines and the two SRB nozzles to control shuttle attitude and trajectory during lift- off and ascent. Commands from the guidance system are transmitted to the ATVC drivers, which transmit signals proportional to the commands to each servoactuator of the main engines and SRBs. Four independent flight control system channels and four ATVC channels control six main engine and four SRB ATVC drivers, with each driver controlling one hydraulic port on each main and SRB servoactuator.
Each SRB servoactuator consists of four independent, two- stage servovalves that receive signals from the drivers. Each servovalve controls one power spool in each actuator, which positions an actuator ram and the nozzle to control the direction of thrust.
The four servovalves in each actuator provide a force- summed majority voting arrangement to position the power spool. With four identical commands to the four servovalves, the actuator force-sum action prevents a single erroneous command from affecting power ram motion. If the erroneous command persists for more than a predetermined time, differential pressure sensing activates a selector valve to isolate and remove the defective servovalve hydraulic pressure, permitting the remaining channels and servovalves to control the actuator ram spool.
Failure monitors are provided for each channel to indicate which channel has been bypassed. An isolation valve on each channel provides the capability of resetting a failed or bypassed channel.
Each actuator ram is equipped with transducers for position feedback to the thrust vector control system. Within each servoactuator ram is a splashdown load relief assembly to cushion the nozzle at water splashdown and prevent damage to the nozzle flexible bearing.
Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGA)
Each SRB contains two RGAs, with each RGA containing one pitch and one yaw gyro. These provide an output proportional to angular rates about the pitch and yaw axes to the orbiter computers and guidance, navigation and control system during first- stage ascent flight in conjunction with the orbiter roll rate gyros until SRB separation. At SRB separation, a switchover is made from the SRB RGAs to the orbiter RGAs.
The SRB RGA rates pass through the orbiter flight aft multiplexers/ demultiplexers to the orbiter GPCs. The RGA rates are then mid-value- selected in redundancy management to provide SRB pitch and yaw rates to the user software. The RGAs are designed for 20 missions.
SRB separation is initiated when the three solid rocket motor chamber pressure transducers are processed in the redundancy management middle value select and the head- end chamber pressure of both SRBs is less than or equal to 50 psi. A backup cue is the time elapsed from booster ignition.
The separation sequence is initiated, commanding the thrust vector control actuators to the null position and putting the main propulsion system into a second-stage configuration (0.8 second from sequence initialization), which ensures the thrust of each SRB is less than 100,000 pounds. Orbiter yaw attitude is held for four seconds, and SRB thrust drops to less than 60,000 pounds.
The SRBs separate from the external tank within 30 milliseconds of the ordnance firing command.
The forward attachment point consists of a ball (SRB) and socket (ET) held together by one bolt. The bolt contains one NSD pressure cartridge at each end. The forward attachment point also carries the range safety system cross-strap wiring connecting each SRB RSS and the ET RSS with each other.
The aft attachment points consist of three separate struts: upper, diagonal and lower. Each strut contains one bolt with an NSD pressure cartridge at each end. The upper strut also carries the umbilical interface between its SRB and the external tank and on to the orbiter.
There are four booster separation motors on each end of each SRB. The BSMs separate the SRBs from the external tank. The solid rocket motors in each cluster of four are ignited by firing redundant NSD pressure cartridges into redundant confined detonating fuse manifolds.
The separation commands issued from the orbiter by the SRB separation sequence initiate the redundant NSD pressure cartridge in each bolt and ignite the BSMs to effect a clean separation.
Range Safety System (RSS)
The shuttle vehicle has three RSSs. One is located in each SRB and one in the external tank. Any one or all three are capable of receiving two command messages (arm and fire) transmitted from the ground station. The RSS is used only when the shuttle vehicle violates a launch trajectory red line.
An RSS consists of two antenna couplers, command receivers/ decoders, a dual distributor, a safe and arm device with two NSDs, two confined detonating fuse manifolds, seven CDF assemblies and one linear-shaped charge.
The antenna couplers provide the proper impedance for radio frequency and ground support equipment commands. The command receivers are tuned to RSS command frequencies and provide the input signal to the distributors when an RSS command is sent. The command decoders use a code plug to prevent any command signal other than the proper command signal from getting into the distributors. The distributors contain the logic to supply valid destruct commands to the RSS pyrotechnics.
The NSDs provide the spark to ignite the CDF, which in turn ignites the LSC for shuttle vehicle destruction. The safe and arm device provides mechanical isolation between the NSDs and the CDF before launch and during the SRB separation sequence.
The first message, called arm, allows the onboard logic to enable a destruct and illuminates a light on the flight deck display and control panel at the commander and pilot station. The second message transmitted is the fire command.
The SRB distributors in the SRBs and the ET are cross- strapped together. Thus, if one SRB received an arm or destruct signal, the signal would also be sent to the other SRB and the ET.
Electrical power from the RSS battery in each SRB is routed to RSS system A. The recovery battery in each SRB is used to power RSS system B as well as the recovery system in the SRB. The SRB RSS is powered down during the separation sequence, and the SRB recovery system is powered up. Electrical power for the ET RSS system A and system B is independently supplied by two RSS batteries on the ET.
Descent and Recovery
The recovery sequence begins with the operation of the high-altitude baroswitch, which triggers the functioning of the pyrotechnic nose cap thrusters. This ejects the nose cap, which deploys the pilot parachute. This occurs at 15,704 feet altitude 225 seconds after separation. The 11.5-foot-diameter conical ribbon pilot parachute provides the force to pull the lanyard activating the zero-second cutter, which cuts the loop securing the drogue retention straps. This allows the pilot chute to pull the drogue pack from the SRB, causing the drogue suspension lines to deploy from their stored position. At full extension of the 12 95-foot suspension lines, the drogue deployment bag is stripped away from the canopy, and the 54-foot-diameter conical ribbon drogue parachute inflates to its initial reefed condition. The drogue disreefs twice after specified time delays, and it reorients/stabilizes the SRB for main chute deployment. The drogue parachute can withstand a load of 270,000 pounds and weighs approximately 1,200 pounds.
After the drogue chute has stabilized the vehicle in a tailfirst attitude, the frustum is separated from the forward skirt by a charge triggered by the low-altitude baroswitch at an altitude of 5,975 feet 248 seconds after separation. It is then pulled away from the SRB by the drogue chute. The main chutes' suspension lines are pulled out from deployment bags that remain in the frustum. At full extension of the lines, which are 204 feet long, the three main chutes are pulled from the deployment bags and inflate to their first reefed condition. The frustum and drogue parachute continue on a separate trajectory to splashdown. After specified time delays, the main chutes' reefing lines are cut and the chutes inflate to their second reefed and full open configurations. The main chute cluster decelerates the SRB to terminal conditions. Each of the 136-foot-diameter, 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes can withstand a load of 180,000 pounds and weighs 2,180 pounds. The nozzle extension is severed by pyrotechnic charge either at apogee or 20 seconds after low baroswitch operation.
Water impact occurs 295 seconds after separation at a velocity of 81 feet per second. The water impact range is approximately 140 miles off the eastern coast of Florida. Because the parachutes provide for a nozzlefirst impact, air is trapped in the empty (burned out) motor casing, causing the booster to float with the forward end approximately 30 feet out of the water.
The main chutes are released from the SRB at impact using the parachute release nut ordnance system. Residual loads in the main chutes deploy the parachute attach fittings with the redundant flotation tethered to each fitting. The drogue and frustum; each main chute, with its flotation; and the SRB are buoyant. The SRB recovery aids are the radio beacon and flashing lights, which become operable at frustum separation. The radio transponder in each SRB has a range of 8.9 nautical miles (10.35 statute miles), and the flashing light has a nighttime range of 4.9 nautical miles (5.75 statute miles).
Various parameters of SRB operation are monitored and displayed on the orbiter flight deck control and display panel and are transmitted to ground telemetry.
The prime contractor for the SRB motors is Morton Thiokol Corporation, Wasatch Division, Brigham City, Utah. United Space Booster Inc. Booster Production Company is prime contractor for SRB assembly, checkout and refurbishment for all non-solid-rocket-motor components and for SRB integration. Companies supplying various components for the SRBs are Pioneer Parachute Co., Manchester, Conn. (parachutes); Abex Corp., Oxnard, Calif. (hydraulic pumps); Arde Inc., Mahwah, N.J. (hydrazine fuel modules); Arkwin Industries Inc., Westbury, N.Y. (hydraulic reservoirs); Aydin Vector Division, Newtown, Pa. (integrated electronic assemblies); Bendix Corp., Teterboro, N.J. (integrated electronic assemblies); Consolidated Controls Corp., El Segundo, Calif. (fuel isolation valves, hydrazine); Eldec Corp., Lynnwood, Wash. (integrated electronic assemblies); Explosive Technology, Fairfield, Calif. (CDF manifolds); Martin Marietta, Denver, Colo. (pyro initiator controllers); Moog Inc., East Aurora, N.Y. (servoactuators); Sperry Rand Flight Systems, Phoenix, Ariz. (multiplexers / demultiplexers); Teledyne, Lewisburg, Tenn. (location aid transmitters); United Technology Corp., Sunnyvale, Calif. (separation motors); Sundstrand, Rockford, Ill. (auxiliary power units); Motorola Inc., Scottsdale, Ariz. (range safety receivers).